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진도개 사랑 문동호 씨 이야기

KOREAN WAR 2010.10.30 21:09 Posted by 대풍
다음은 '문동호의 진도개 이야기'에서 따온 글입니다.
http://www.jindo21.com/mydog_greetings.html

20여년간 혈통을 보존하여 집에서 기르던 본가 혈통 모견
(견명:봉암) 과 부견(견명:백운동-진도군 지산면 최창대님
소유 견 : 전국 챔피언) 과의 사이에서 출생한 견(견명:백호)이
모태가 되어  번식한 개들이 진도군내에 다두 사육농가에
분양된개가 '97년 진도군진도개품평회에 우수상을 받는등
우수한 혈통으로 맥을 이어 전국적으로 명성을 날리고
있습니다.

백호의 부견 (견명:백운동) 사진.  


1. 견명 - 백호
  등록번호 : 진도군 00-01DD-8ACD
  출생년도 : 1994. 2. 27
  성      별 : 암(♀)
  모      색 : 백구

2. 특기사항
  99. 6. 30 KBS 6시 내고향 방영.
     (진도에서 개자랑 하지마세요.)
  97. 전국 진도개 품평회 우수상
  95. 진도군 품평회 우수상
 
저희집 개들은 5-6대 이상 육종을 시켜서 혈통이 고정되어 우수한
자견들이 출생되고 있으며 ,특히 암캐들이 발정이 오면 진도군내에
우수한 혈통을 이어온 개들을 엄밀히 심사하여 발정난 암캐와
적합한 종견을 선정하여 교미를 시키기 때문에 자견이 완전히
성장하면 훌륭한 자태를 나타내고 있습니다.


진도개는, 다른 견종에 비하여 여러 가지의 우수한 특성을 지니고 있다.
진도개의 우수한 특성 때문에 일제하인 1938년 조선보-물 고적명승으로 지정되어, 보호를 받다가 1962년, [문화재보호법]에 의하여 다시 천연기념물로 지정되어오늘에 이르고 있다.
진도개는 우리나라에서는 모르는 사람이 없을 만큼 알려져 있는 개인데 일본의 모리교수는, 그 기원을 옛날 석기 시대 의 사람이 기르던 개의 후예가 전해 내려온 조선 고유견이라 기술하고 있다.
그런데 그로부터 약 30년 뒤인 1970년대에 우리나라 사람들은 진도의 현지에서 구전되어 오는 속설로 미루어 보아 중국의 송나라 개나 몽겨견이 진도개의 선조일 것이라고 주장하고 있어 자칫 잘못 하다가는 그 속설이 전설로 될 우려마져 있는 실정이다.

아마도 진도개는 석기시대의 사람들이 기르던 개가 진도라는 특수한 환경에서 혈통과 야성을 순수하게 유지되어온 우리나라의 고유 토종개라고 사료된다.

 
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전쟁과 평화 (WAR AND PEACE)

KOREAN WAR 2010.09.02 22:57 Posted by 대풍

The Korean War (1950–1953) was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and People's Republic of China (PRC), with air support from the Soviet Union. The war began on 25 June 1950 and an armistice was signed on 27 July 1953. The war was a result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War.


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나는 지난번 서울에서의 2008 개국 63년과 건국 60
8.15 기념 행사에 해외 명예회원의 일원으로 초대되었었습니다. 건국 60주년이니 국군의 역사도 60주년이 듯합니다. 대한 민국이 수립되기 전에 군정이 한국정부 수립 당국에게 한국군의 기초를 당시의 조선 경비대로 달라고 요청한 것으로 알고있습니다. 나의 임관이 그리고 육사 7 까지 경비대 시절에 임관되었다 생각하면 우리의 건군사는 건국사보다 앞선다는 것이 됩니다.

 

8.15식전에서 이명박 대통령은 건국 60주년은 통일을 제외하고는 성공한 역사라고 말씀하셨습니다. 동감입니다. 내가 알고 있는 오늘의 대한 민국의 민주체제와 풍요는 해방 직후의 대한민국을 수립 하겠다는 시대적 국민의 혜안과 땀이 그리고 한국 전쟁을 감내한 국군 장병의 애국 감투정신 UN 회원국의 전쟁 지원과 경제원조로 말미암은 개방 성과 한미동맹 결과로 생각되는데 여러분들의 의견은 어떻신지요?

 

불행하게도 촛불 시위의 여파가 가시기 전이라서인지 대통령의 축사에 대한민국의 국기를 출발시킨 이승만 박사의 이름이나 국군의 충성심 UN 공헌과 한미동맹은 언급이 되지 못함이 유감이었습니다.  남한 까지 쏘련의 위성국으로 만들어 보겠다는 야망을 가지고 있던 쏘련군의 원조하 북한은 1948 9 9일에 조선인민 공화국을 출발시켰습니다. 그리고 쏘련과 중공의 도움을 약속받아 민족 상쟁과 국토를 초토화 시키는 1950 625일의 남침을 감행해 한반도가 아직도 세계적으로 유레없는 분단 대치와 휴전 정국이 되었습니다. 한국전쟁에서 피해를  입지 아니한 남북의 가정이 없다 생각하면 한국전쟁을 이르킨 책임은 용납이 없는 일입니다.  

 

 한국전쟁은 그러나 남북의 위상을 바꾸어 놓았습니다. 나의 기억에는 일제가 만주 침략 기지를 위해 남한의 농업과 경공업 중심에 비해서는 전력과 중공업 위주의 북한 경제체제를 만들어 60년대만 해도 북이 남한보다 부유했다고 기억됩니다. 60년이 지난 오늘의 남북을 비교하면 크게 변했습니다. 남한은 민주질서와 시장 경제로 대통령을 조롱할 수도 있으며 세계 빈국에서 세계13번째 경제 대국으로 세계적 진출과 선진화를 꿈꾸는 반면 북한은 식량 부족으로 많은 국민이 아사를 경험하 남한을 포함한 세계로부터 식량 구걸을 해야 하며 많은 탈북자와 국제 고립을 자초하면서 핵개발에 유일한 희망을 걸고 있는 듯합니다.

 

한국전쟁에 참전했던 노장들이 중심인 향군 단체가 아직도 향군들의 일이 남아 있다고 부르고 있는 듯합니다.

 

 감사합니다.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
2008
10 4 Cardrock National Park에서  김웅수 예비역 소장

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Honoring Veterans of the Korean War BY KORUS HOUSE
                   (06/27/08)
Commemorating the start of the Korean War 58 years ago, the Embassy of the Republic of Korea today hosted several events in homage to the veterans who courageously served and sacrificed throughout that conflict.

Korean Ambassador Lee Tae-Sik attended a ceremony this morning at the Korean War Memorial on the National Mall in Washington D.C., along with other embassy officials, to honor the efforts of Korean War veterans. Members of the Korean War Veterans Association (KWVA) of Delaware later paid a special visit to the embassy’s Korus House, for an honorary cultural presentation.

At the KORUS House, Public Affairs Minister Yoon Sock-joong welcomed Delaware KWVA members, thanking them for their perseverance and support through adversity in order to bolster the democratization of Korea. Yoon quoted Ambassador Lee in his earlier remarks to emphasize Korea’s appreciation for the veterans’ roles in the war, saying, “we thank you for your continued courage and sacrifice in your service.”

Hosan Kim of the Korus House then presented a forum on the rich cultural heritage of Korea, giving background information on the land and people as well as its industry and rising status in the global economy. A short film honoring Marguerite “Maggie” Higgins as an instrumental war correspondent during the Korean War paid tribute to her efforts to publicize the issues facing South Korea and the importance of American support.

Members of the Delaware KWVA interacted with Kim as he discussed the influence of Taekwondo and traditional Korean foods as factors propelling the Korean Wave. Captivating clips of Korean martial-artists in action and break dancing performances of b-boy group Last For One set to catchy Korean fusion music received a great response from the audience. The music used in the Dynamic Korea presentations represents a fusion of traditional Korean sounds with fresh rhythms perfect for accompanying the unique dance style of the Korean Wave.

Air Force veteran Ed Pickhaver, currently commander of the Delaware KWVA, pointed to the impressive demonstrations of talent as his favorite part of the presentation. Mick Schroeder, commander of the Delaware KWVA from 2004-2007, seconded Pickhaver’s opinion that the dance and Taekwondo exhibitions were a favorite among the crowd, live performances of which they enjoy from time to time at their own gatherings in their home state of Delaware.


Schroeder who recalls being dispatched in 1953, served thirteen months in Yeongdeungpo, Korea as a radio operator for the Air Force. In his spare time he supported the AACS orphanage in Seoul and formed a bond with many native South Koreans. Although the experiences of the veterans ranged from terrible to encouraging, none seemed to regret their service for their ideals. Some preferred not to return, but Schroeder and his wife visited Korea just a few years ago.
Dr. Carolyn Moore, a fellow veteran who served from 1983-1985 in Seoul as a physician at the 121st Evacuation Hospital, was enthusiastic and happy to share her experiences, recounting a visit with a Korean friend.

The veterans received the presentation with enthusiasm, also remarking on the drastic changes South Korea has experienced since the armistice agreement and post-war reconstruction. They were happy to learn about the dynamic culture of Korea represented in Kim’s presentation, and were pleased to experience different flavors of Korea in the spread of traditional food provided by the embassy.


“The KORUS House should hold more public relation events like this,” said Edith Baker, wife of one veteran, “because not many people are aware of the fact that the US and Korea have a strong and friendly relationship. The fact that the US and Korea have suffered together during wartime makes us feel a lot closer.”
Many members agree that younger generations need to be made aware of the continued struggle in Korea and the necessity of global support spanning cultural boundaries.

The KORUS House, tasked with promoting and explaining the Korean-U.S. relationship through academic and cultural events, extends an open invitation to any groups who wish to attend.

By Leah Booth
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WITHDRAWAL TO THE PUSAN PERIMETER

Jun 25 to Aug 3, 1950

Compiled by Ed Evanhoe, November 2002


June 25, 1950

At approximately 4 a.m. (Korean Standard Time) on a rainy Sunday morning Democratic People's Republic of Korea Army (DPRK - North Korea) artillery and mortars open fire on Republic of Korea (ROK - South Korea) Army positions south of the 38th Parallel, the line then serving as the border between the two countries. The opening barrage is followed shortly by tank/infantry attacks at all points along the Parallel. At 11 a.m. North Korea announced a formal declaration of war and what is now known as "The Korean War" officially began. In this announcement North Korea claimed ROK forces on the Ongjin Peninsula attacked North Korea in the Haeju area (west) and their declaration of war was in response to this attack. This claim was bogus.

U.S. President Harry S. Truman was notified of the invasion and returned from his home in Independence, Missouri, to Washington, D.C., arriving in early afternoon. Meanwhile the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution calling for the immediate cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of North Korean forces to north of the 38th Parallel.

June 26, 1950

Uijongbu falls to North Korean forces. South Korean government - President Syngman Rhee and cabinet - leave Seoul for Taejon.

President Truman meets with State Department and Defense Department officials. He authorizes General Douglas MacArthur to: 

(1) send ammunition and equipment to prevent the loss of Seoul,

(2) provide ships and aircraft to evacuate American citizens, plus Air Force fighters and Navy ships to protect the evacuation, and

(3) send a survey party to Korea to study the situation and determine how best to help the ROK government and military. Later in the day President Truman expanded his instructions by ordering General MacArthur to use Air Force aircraft and Navy ships against all North Korean military targets south the 38th Parallel. General MacArthur issues an "alert order" telling all combat units in the Far East to prepare for possible deployment to Korea.

June 27, 1950

U.S. Ambassador Muccio & staff leave Seoul for Suwon. ROK Army headquarters leave Seoul for Sihung-ni (about 5 miles south of Yongdungp'o) without informing their U.S. advisors with the Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG.) KMAG follows ROKA Hq to Sihung-ni shortly thereafter. After discussions, most of ROKA Hq and KMAG return to Seoul a few hours later.

During the late evening, the U.N. Security council passes a resolution calling for member nations to give military aid to South Korea.

Meanwhile, in compliance with President Truman's order to provide help to South Korea and the use of U.S. air and naval forces south of the 38th Parallel, General MacArthur sent a fact finding group, headed by Brig. General Church, to Korea. This group left Japan at approximately 4 a.m. and arriving at Suwon in the early afternoon where they set up a temporary headquarters.

A U.S. Air Force F-82 shoots down a North Korean Yak fighter for the first U.S. air victory of the war. Two more North Korean aircraft are shot down a few minutes later in this same battle.

June 28, 1950

ROKA engineers blow the Han River Bridge at approximately 2:15 a.m. trapping the bulk of 3 ROKA divisions fighting on the outskirts, plus ROKA Hq and KMAG personnel still in Seoul. Somewhere between 500 and 800 people - civilian & military- are killed in the explosion. All trapped KMAG were able to escape across the Han River later in the day via still-operating ferries, arriving in Suwon late that afternoon, where KMAG senior personnel briefed Gen. Church.

North Korean force entered Seoul in the early afternoon and street fighting ensued but by midnight Seoul was in North Korean hands.

June 29, 1950

Detachment "X," 33 officers and men from the 507th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, arrive at Suwon and set up their weapons. During the day they engage 4 enemy planes, shooting down one and damaging another. These are the first American ground troops into Korea and theirs are the first shots fired by U.S. Army personnel arriving from Japan.

Gen. MacArthur flies to Suwon and confers with General Church and KMAG staff, then returns to Japan where he sends a message to the Joint Chiefs recommending introducing U.S. ground forces into battle. President Truman receives and approves the recommendation.

USS Juneau shells North Korean positions in the Samch'ok-Kangnung area (east coast.)

North Korean troops cross the Han River in the Kimpo area and take the air field.

June 30, 1950

Gen. MacArthur receives permission to employ U.S. ground support forces and to carry the war into North Korea and the waters offshore but to stay well clear of the Manchurian and Soviet borders. Later in the day he receives permission to deploy one (1) Regimental Combat Team (RCT) to Korea to establish a defense line in Pusan area to assure retention of the port. A few hours after this the order was expanded to 2 combat divisions and with permission to employ these forces against North Korean forces in the Suwon area. The United States was now fully committed to the Korean War.

General Church goes to Osan (12 miles south of Suwon so he can communicate with Far East Command Headquarters via telephone. He is told that if Suwon Air Field can be held, 2 U.S. infantry battalions will be flown in the next day. While he is in Osan, ADSCOM personnel panic in the belief they about to be surrounded, destroy their documents and radios, then move to Suwon Air Field to set up a defense perimeter. Once there, they decide to retreat south to Taejon and order AAA personnel to accompany them. General Church meets the retreating Americans on the road and orders them back to Suwon but finding all communications equipment destroyed, orders all to fall back to Taejon.

In Japan, MacArthur orders the 24th Infantry Division, Maj. Gen. William F. Dean commanding, to deploy to Korea. At approximately 10:30 PM the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Division - less "A"& "D" companies, was ordered to proceed to Itazuke Air Base fro immediate deployment to Korea, thus forming the infantry element of what would become Task Force Smith (TFS.)

July 1, 1950

ADSCOM establishes a headquarters at Taejon. Task Force Smith ("B" & "C" Companies, ?1st Battalion Headquarters Company, ?a communications platoon, a composite platoon of 75mm recoilless rifle with of 4 guns, and 4 4.2" mortars - 406 infantry total) troops destined to be flown into Suwon are flown into Pusan instead and were immediately put on a train for Taejon. Remainder of 24th Division to follow. Gen. Dean is also named to command all U.S. Army Forces in Korea (USAFIK.)

July 2, 1950

TFS officers and men arrive in Taejon at approximately 8 a.m. That evening TFS is ordered north to the towns of P'yongtaek and Ansong, arriving after dark. C Company dug in at P'yongtaek and B Company at Ansong.

USS Juneau and 2 British ships engage 4 NK torpedo boats escorting 10 small wooden freighters. 2 torpedo boats and 7 freighters destroyed.

34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division, arrives at Pusan

July 3, 1950

General Dean arrives at Taejon and takes command of USAFIK.

Aircraft from the USS Valley Forge and HMS Triumph attack air fields in the P'yongyang-Chinnamp'o west coast area.

A Royal Australian Air Force F-51 mistakenly attacks an ammunition train stopped at the P'yongtaek Railroad station, causing it to explode. Railroad station was destroyed.

Two USAF Tactical Air Control Parties (TAC) arrive at Taejon.

North Korean forces take Inch'on and Yongdungp'o.

July 4, 1950

Task Force Smith consolidated at P'yongtaek and was joined by part of the 52nd Field Artillery Battalion. This artillery contingent consisted of ?of Headquarters and Service Batteries and all of "A" Battery with 6 - 105-mm howitzers, a total of 108 men and officers. Task Force Smith ordered take up positions north of Osan.

2nd and 3rd Battalions, plus regimental support troops, 21st Infantry Regiment arrive at Pusan.

Meanwhile Gen. MacArthur requested from the Joint Chiefs of Staff that the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division, a regimental combat team from the 82nd Airborne Division plus a Marine division be sent immediately to Korea.

July 5, 1950

Approximately 3 a.m. Task Force Smith reached the selected defense positions approximately 2-1/2 miles north of Osan and began digging in. The 52nd Field Artillery guns dug in a mile and half or so to the south of TFS positions with one gun dug in a half mile to TFS's rear. This one gun had all the High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) rounds the artillery had brought with them - 7 rounds.

A little after 7 a.m. a North Korean tank column, with a few infantry riding, was spotted coming the road. 8:16 a.m. the 52nd Field fired the first artillery rounds by an American unit of the Korean War at the advancing T-34 tanks. Artillery fire was accurate but ineffective against the tanks as was fire from the 75mm recoilless rifles and 2.36" Bazookas fired at the tanks as they continued without stopping past Task Force Smith defenses and continued south. It did, however, kill or wound most of the infantry on the tanks. Two T-34 tanks were disabled but were pushed off the road. In total, 33 T-34 tanks went through Task Force Smith infantry positions by 9 a.m and through the 52nd artillery positions by 10:15 a.m and continued on toward Osan.

Meanwhile a relative calm settled over TFS infantry positions. At approximately 10 a.m. a column of trunks and infantry could be seen coming down the road. Led by three tanks, this column was several miles long and arriving at point approximately 1000 yards north of TFS infantry positions. At approximately 11 a.m., TFS mortars and .50 caliber machineguns opened fire on the column. The fire was effective. Trucks blew up and men were blown into the air. Everyone who could took cover in ditches and rice paddies but the three T-34 tanks continued to advance and took TFS infantry positions under fire. Meanwhile North Korean infantry quickly reorganized and began a double envelopment of TFS's flanks. By 2:30 p.m. North Korean units were on Task Force Smith's flanks while a huge North Korean reserve waited on the road so the order to pull out and fall back was given. American forces in Korea had suffered their first defeat. It was a costly one for Task Force Smith. It lost approximately 150 infantrymen and officers killed, wounded or missing and 15 artillerymen and officers.

While the TFS fight was going on north of Osan, the 24th Division's 34th Infantry Regiment arrived at Taejon and was deployed north to set up defenses at P'yongtaek and Ansong with regimental headquarters at Songhwan-ni, a town 6 miles south of P'yongtaek on the main highway and rail line. The 1st Battalion established positions on both sides of the main highway and rail line north of P'yongtaek while the 3rd Battalion was ordered to Ansong.

USAF TAC parties deployed from Taejon to the 34th Infantry Regiment, one team going to the 1st Battalion at P'yongtaek, the other to the 3rd Battalion.

July 6, 1950

1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, blow the highway and railroad bridges north of their positions at approximately 3 a.m. Enemy tanks and infantry arrive at the blown bridge at dawn. The destroyed bridge stops the tanks but North Korean infantry wade the river both upstream and downstream. 1st Battalion opens fire on the tanks/infantry but without much success. At this point the North Korean infantry begin a double-envelopment and the 1st Battalion begins withdrawing to prevent encirclement and retreats south to Ch'onan where they take up new positions along with "A" & "D" Companies of the just arrived 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, two miles south of the city. Meanwhile the 3rd Battalion arrives from Ansong and takes up positions at Ch'onan.

July 7, 1950

3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry was ordered north up the road from Ch'onan and to advance until it contacted the enemy, then fight a delaying action while withdrawing back to its position at Ch'onan. "L" Company, with the regimental I&R Platoon at point, advanced to a point approximately 5 miles north of Ch'onan with the rest of the battalion following. A general retreat began but instead of the 3rd Battalion taking up its positions 2 miles north of Ch'onan, it continued south into the city, taking up positions at the north edge and railroad station at the west edge of the town. Meanwhile a battery of the 63rd Field Artillery Battalion arrived at Ch'onan to support the 34th Infantry.

Remainder of the 21st Infantry Regiment arrives at Taejon and ordered to continue on to Choch'iwon and support the 34th Infantry. 3rd takes up positions blocking the highway six miles northwest of Choch'iwon while "A" & "D" Companies, 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry are ordered to move south on the Ch'onan-Choch'iwon road and take up advance blocking positions at the town of Chonui.

The UN Security Council passes its third resolution asking the United States to name the commander for UN Forces in Korea.

July 8, 1950

Shortly before daybreak North Korean T-34 tanks entered Ch'onan from the east as did infantry units. The tanks roamed back and forth shooting at every American vehicle and suspected American position while North Korean infantry began systematically to attack from the east and other North Korean infantry moved south of the town and cutting the escape route for the 3rd Battalion. By afternoon Ch'onan was in North Korean hands and the 3rd Battalion. Approximately 175 men and officers from the 3rd Battalion were able to escape from the town.

When notified of the loss of Ch'onan, Gen. Dean ordered what was left of the 34th Infantry Regiment to fight a delaying action as it moved south down the road leading to the Kum River and ordered the 21st Regt to delay the North Koreans north of Choch'iwon at least 4 days. He augmented the 21st Inf with one battery of 155mm howitzers from the 11th Field Artillery Battalion plus "A" Company, 78th Heavy Tank Battalion (misnomer since the battalion was equipped with M-24 light tanks, not M4E8 medium tanks.) At the same time the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion was ordered to prepare roadblocks along the 34th Infantry's withdrawal route at Kongju and to prepare all bridges over the Kum River for demolition.

President Truman names Gen. Douglas MacArthur as Commanding General of United nations Military Forces and directs him to use the United Nations Flag, concurrently with the flags of the various nations participating, in the course of operations against North Korean Forces.

July 9, 1950

By dawn "A" & "D" Companies, 1st Battalion, 21st Inf, were in forward blocking positions on a low ridge just southeast of Chonui while the 3rd Battalion, 21st Inf, manned stronger defense position a mile to the south. A USAF FAC team was with the forward blocking force as well artillery observers from the 11th FA Battalion.. In mid-afternoon 11 T-34 tanks, escorted by 200-300 infantry appeared on the road north of Chonui. The AF FAC team called in air strikes while the artillery FO called in artillery. By 4:30 p.m. five of the eleven tanks were burning and North Korean infantry retreated under 4.2 mortar and artillery fire. A short time later another air strike hit approximately 200 NK vehicles on the Choch'iwon-Chonui road destroying approximately 100. After dark, NK patrols entered Chonui and began probing 1st Battalion blocking positions but were driven off with mortar and artillery fire. This engagement set the village of Chonui on fire, lighting up the night.

July 10, 1950

Fog shrouded the ground when dawn broke at Chonui and with it came North Korean soldiers. Men of the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry could hear North Koreans on the northwest side of the road. A few minutes later firing began coming from that direction, most in the direction of the platoon set up on small hill. The platoon reported the firing was coming from a higher hill two or three hundred yards to their northwest. Mortars from the 1st Battalion. began firing pre-registered salvos at the area between the two hills. North Korean forces circled around the American held hill and attacked the mortars to the rear. The mortar and 75mm recoilless rifle sections were overrun at approximately 7:15 a.m. About the same time, North Korean tanks came out of Chonui, passed through American lines and down the road towards Choch'iwon. The tanks could be heard but not seen because of the fog as they moved south. The fog lifted at about 8 a.m. and at approximately 9 a.m. North Korean infantry moved out of Chonui and began a frontal attack on 1st Battalion positions but were beaten off. A second attack developed at approximately 11 a.m. Initially the 1st Battalion held but soon U.S. artillery began impacting on the 1st Battalion. Attempts to stop the friendly fire failed. North Korean forces pressed their attack and by approximately noon the 1st Battalion was partially overrun so the 1st Battalion withdrew back to Choch'iwon. Later that afternoon the 3rd Battalion, 21st Inf. retook former 1st Battalion positions. While advancing for the attack, the 3rd Battalion found six U.S. soldiers lying dead in a ditch, hands tied behind their backs and killed by a single shot to the head. The 3rd Battalion stayed in former 1st Battalion positions until about midnight when they withdrew to its old positions about six miles north of Choch'iwon..

At approximately 10 a.m., the first tank-to-tank battle of the Korean War took place south of 1st Battalion positions and Choch'iwon when 4 U.S. M-24 light tanks engaged the same North Korean tanks which had gone through 1st Battalion lines earlier in the day. U.S. tanks performed poorly, losing two while the North Korean's lost none. Later that afternoon the second tank-to-tank battle took place in the same area. This time U.S. M-24's lost none and destroyed two T-34 tanks.

Meanwhile Task Force Smith, reequipping in Taejon, had received 205 replacements and was ordered to rejoin the 21st Infantry Regt. at Choch'iwon. About the same time, General MacArthur was named Commander in Chief, United Nations Command, in addition to being Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP,) Commander in Chief, Far East (CINCFE,) and Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces, Far East.

The 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division lands at Pusan and is sent north to Uisong, 25 miles north of Taegu. 25th division headquarters is established at Yongch'on, a point half way between P'ohang-dong on the Sea of Japan and Taegu.

Meanwhile, Gen. MacArthur received word the 2nd Infantry Division had been ordered to deploy to Korea.

July 11, 1950

Task Force Smith's "B" & "C" companies rejoined the 1st Battalion at Choch'iwon shortly before dawn. The 1st Battalion then moved to positions about 2 miles north of Choch'iwon. Meanwhile the 21st 's 3rd Battalion was already engaged with North Korean tanks and infantry. A double-envelopment by North Korean troops soon had the battalion surrounded and by noon the 3rd Battalion was completely overrun while individuals and small groups tried to make their south to safety. Only 322 out 667 made it.

To west on the Ch'onan-Taejon highway the 1st Battalion, 34th , fought a series of small delaying actions as it withdrew, crossing to the south bank of the Kum river that afternoon.

July 12, 1950

At dawn North Korean forces began probing the 1st Battalion, 21st, at the same time executing a double envelopment of their positions two miles north of Choch'iwon. By noon the 1st Battalion was falling back so the 21st was ordered to withdraw and take up new positions on the south bank of the Kum River at Taep'yong-ni. The withdrawal was completed that afternoon.

The 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division arrive at Pusan. Meanwhile two battalions, 27th Infantry is moved to Andong while one battalion is sent to P'ohang to provide security for Yonil Air Field (K-3) 5 miles to south of P'ohang on the east coast. Meanwhile, two battalions from the 29th Infantry Regiment on Okinawa were ordered to Korea.

July 13, 1950

By the morning of 13 July, the 24th Division was in defensive positions along the south bank of the Kum River on at Taejon and Taep'yong-ni. As soon as the last troops were south of the river engineers blew all road and railroad bridges crossing the Kum while the 24th Reconnaissance Company fanned out along the Kum's south bank, destroying all ferries and flat-bottomed boats. The front now extended from Taejon, northeast to Ch'ongju, and across the Taebaek Mountains P'yonghae-ri on the east coast. In the Taejon-Kongju area the 24th Division was deployed with the 24th Reconnaissance Company watching principle river crossings west of Kongju, the 34th Infantry at Kongju, the newly arrived 19th Infantry Regiment at Taejon, and the badly mauled 21st Infantry Regiment in blocking position southeast of Taejon. The 21st was down to a total strength of approximately 1100 men, having 1,433 men missing-in-action during the first week of fighting. At Kongju the 3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry Regiment was on the high ground around Kongju astride the Kongju-Nonsan road. On the line from left to right were "L." "I," and "K" Companies, with the heavy mortars of "M" (Heavy Weapons) Company behind them.

Also on the 13th, 8th Army Headquarters, under command of Lt. Gen. Walton Walker, is established at Taegu. At the same time ROK Army Headquarters is moved to Taegu.

July 14, 1950

As dawn broke on July 14th 3rd Battalion, 34th, occupied the same positions as the day before. At approximately 6 a.m. enemy tanks on the north bank of the Kum River opened fire on "I" Company positions but did little damage. A few minutes later an "L" Company outpost on the far left flank reported that two barges were ferrying North Korean Troops across the Kum two miles to their west. An estimated 500 North Korean troops crossed by 9:30 a.m. By then "L" Company was under increasingly accurate mortar and artillery fire so its commander ordered the company to withdraw, an action which lead the company commander being relieved. Instead of attacking the 3rd Battalion, the North Koreans continued south intent on enveloping the infantry positions. Three miles south of the river, the 63rd Field Artillery Battalion set up along a secondary road near the village of Samyo. At about 1:30 p.m. an outpost reported North Korean troops approaching and the outpost soon overrun. The North Koreans pressed their attack and over the next two hours the entire 63rd Field Artillery Battalion was overrun, losing all of their 105mm howitzers, most of its vehicles and 136 men and officers. "I" Company, 3rd Battalion, 34th, did not learn that "L" Company had withdrawn and enemy troops were holding the roads to its rear until late in the afternoon. At this point the "I" Company Commander began a withdrawal over the mountains to its east and southeast of Kongju, rejoining the regiment at its new positions east of Nonsan.

Meanwhile the 19th Infantry Regiment dug in on the south bank of the Kum River while the 21st reorganized at Taejon. The 19th Infantry front stretched from 3 miles east of Kongju, to Taep'yong-ni and to Sinch'on, a straight line distance of 15 miles and approximately 30 miles along the Kum River because of the river's twists and turns. Its main defense position was astride the main Seoul-Pusan highway where it crossed the Kum at Taep'yong-ni. In early afternoon, and despite air attacks, North Korean tanks appeared. dug in across the Kum at Taep'yong-ni and began firing on 19th Infantry positions. After dark small North Korean patrols probed 19th positions but no serious engagements took place. Meanwhile on the North Korean side of Kum across from Taep'yong-ni the build-up of armor and men continued.

President Syngman Rhee places all ROK military forces under UN command.

Meanwhile, ROK forces on the east coast withdrew to new positions between Yonghae and Yongdok, a fishing port some 20 miles north of the all important port of P'ohang-dong and the Yonil air field.

July 15, 1950

At approximately 6 a.m. the 1100 or so men remaining of 21st left their assembly area at Taejon for Okch'on (10 miles east of Taejon) on the Seoul-Pusan highway. Headquarters set up at Okch'on while the 1st Battalion set up positions astride the main highway about half way between Okch'on and Taejon. Meanwhile at Taep'yong-ni the 19th Infantry things were relatively quiet until just before dusk when small groups of North Koreans began wading across the Kum at various locations, but without success.

July 16, 1950

At 3 a.m. the North Koreans mounted a full-scale, coordinated attack against the 19th, opening the attack with a massive artillery and mortar barrage while infantry waded across the Kum at several points and by 4 a.m. had succeeded in establishing several bridgeheads. By dawn well over a thousand North Koreans were on the south bank of the Kum. Once across they began their standard double-envelopment and by 10 a.m. had established a roadblock on the Taep'yong-ni - Taejon road. Over the next several hours 19th Infantry positions were overrun one by one and American troops began retreating, leaving their dead and seriously wounded behind. With the loss of Taep'yong-ni by the 19th Infantry, the 34th Infantry was ordered to pull back from Nonsan to Taejon and establish new defense positions approximately 3 miles north and west of the city.

July 17, 1950

34th Infantry establishes a defense line north and east of Taejon. Originally it was planned both the 19th and 34th would defend this line but the 21st was combat-ineffective so the job fell to the 34th.

July 18, 1950

Lead elements of the U.S. 5th and 8th Cavalry Regiments, 1st Cavalry Division (dismounted) land at P'ohang-dong.

Gen. Dean orders the 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry back to Taejon along with the "B" Battery, 13th Field Artillery Battalion and 24th Reconnaissance Company.

July 19, 1950

5th Cavalry Regiment departs P'ohang-dong for Taejon. Advance party of the 1st Cavalry Division, including Division Tank Company, arrive at Yongdong.

North Korean YAK aircraft bomb and strafe the railroad bridge two miles northwest of Okch'on in the early morning. Later that afternoon, 2 YAK's were shot down by "A" Battery, 26th Antiaircraft Battalion. 24th Reconnaissance Company arrives at Taejon and moves southwest on the Nonsan Road. At approximately 10 a.m. some three miles west of the Kapch'on River, its advance platoon ran into a North Korean roadblock and withdrew back across the Kapch'on where it joined "L" Company, 21st Infantry. By noon the position was under heavy North Korean attack and by 1 p.m. was being overrun. The 2nd Battalion, 21st arrives at Taejon from Yongdong and is sent on to support "L" Company and 24th Reconnaissance Company. At approximately 1 p.m. the 2nd Battalion, 21st receives word the North Koreans have broken through "L" Company positions and is ordered to retake "L" Company's former positions on the south bank of the Kapch'on River.

Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 34th is under heavy attack in the Yusong area on the main Seoul-Pusan highway. This is northwest of Taejon. The 1st Battalion was able to hold on to most of its forward positions during the day. However, the 34th Infantry commander withdrew his headquarters and vehicles to Taejon and moved the artillery supporting his regiment to the south edge of the city.

About mile to the west of the 1st Battalion, 34th, "F" Company, 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry, came under heavy North Korean attack, which they successfully repelled. However, after dark both "F" Company, 19th and 1st Battalion, 34th could hear North Korean troops and tanks moving south via a mile-wide gap between "F" Company, 19th and the 1st Battalion, 34th. This was reported to their respective regimental headquarters.

July 20, 1950

A little after midnight, 34th Infantry Headquarters received word North Korean tanks and infantry were six miles south of Taejon on the Kumsan road. A patrol from the 24th Reconnaissance Company was ordered south to check this report out. They did not return so at approximately 3 a.m a platoon-sized patrol from the 24th Reconnaissance Company went to find out what had happened to the first patrol. They ran into a strong roadblock where the found the bodies of the first patrol and their destroyed jeeps.

A major North Korean tank/infantry attack developed in the 1st Battalion, 34th area shortly after 3 a.m. and by 4 a.m. most positions had been overrun. Survivors began withdrawing individually or in small groups. The largest group, a mixed bag of approximately 200 1st Battalion headquarters and mortar company personnel, moved south and away from the sound of tank fire.

When telephone communication was lost with the 1st Battalion, a wire team from 34th Headquarters was sent to repair the line. They returned about 5 a.m. and reported North Korean tanks and infantry on the road a mile to the west of Taejon. Not believing the report, the regimental S-3 went to see for himself. He ran into a T-34 tank at road junction a half mile west of Taejon. His jeep was destroyed but he escaped. A few minutes later the T-34 was destroyed by a Bazooka team from the 3rd Combat Engineer Battalion, using the newly arrive 3.5 Bazooka. This was the first known use of this weapon in combat. Within the next hour two more T-34 tanks had been knocked out by this weapon.

Shortly after daybreak, the 3rd Battalion, 34th was ordered to attack in the direction the 1st Battalion. This attack was supposed to close the mile-wide gap between the 1st Battalion, 34th and the 2nd Battalion, 19th. However, they ran into a strong mixed tank/infantry force about an quarter mile west where the T-34 tank had been destroyed and were forced to withdraw back to their previous positions and by noon surviving units and men from the 19th and 34th Infantry Regiments were withdrawing south into the mountains. The roads into Taejon were open to the North Koreans.

Meanwhile, shortly after dawn T-34 tanks and small groups of North Korean infantry began entering the outskirts of Taejon. At the same time North Korean snipers began infiltrating and taking up positions throughout the city. The first knowledge of these was when two T-34 tanks entered the compound being used by Service Company, 34th Infantry and opened fire. This killed several men, destroyed several vehicles and set an ammunition truck on fire, moved away looking for other targets. However, these two T-34 tanks and six others were destroyed by American 3.5" Bazooka teams by 11 a.m. At about 2 p.m. Gen. Dean ordered a withdrawal from the city using the Taejon-Okch'on road and then to Yongdong. However, by this time North Korean infantry was already moving toward this road and some were already astride it.  As various units from the 24th Division withdrew, they were soon stopped by enemy roadblocks and forced to abandon their vehicles and try to reach safety via the mountains. Some did, many did not. The 24th Division Commander, Gen. Dean, was one of those who did not and was captured some days later while evading. At dark, for all intents Taejon was in North Korean hands. However, the 21st Infantry Regiment still held its positions at Okch'on as the North Koreans had concentrated on Taejon and left the Okch'on area for later. The 21st was given permission to withdraw the next morning and to fight delaying actions as it did.

8th Cavalry Regiment departs P'ohang-dong for Yongdong on the Taejon-Taegu road.

In the central sector, troops from the U.S. 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division, engage North Korean forces at Yech'on. They enter the town but withdraw that evening.

July 21, 1950

At daybreak, engineers blew railroad and highway tunnels just north of Okch'on, then blow the last bridge across the Kum River east of Okch'on. The 21st Infantry Regiment and 52nd Field Artillery Battalion make a successful withdrawal from the Okch'on positions to new positions 4 miles northwest of Yongdong. Throughout that day and the next individuals, large and small groups of made their way across the mountains from the Taejon area to Yongdong.

3rd Battalion, 24th Infantry retake Yech'on. Meanwhile the 2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Division take up positions northwest of Hamch'ang on the Yechon-Sangju road. This is in the central sector, north of Taegu.

July 22, 1950

North Koreans attack "F" Company, 2nd Battalion, 25th Infantry Division positions at dawn. ROK Army forces on both sides of the American unit withdrew without informing the Americans who were soon taking fire from both flanks forcing them to withdraw with heavy casualties. At the same time the 2nd Battalion, 24th Infantry is advancing up a road 20 miles northwest of Sangju when it ran into a North Korean roadblock and withdrew.

8th Cavalry Regiment replaces the 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division at Yongdong and the 1st Cavalry Division assumes responsibility for defending the Taejon-Taegu corridor. The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, took up positions on the Taejon road northwest of Yongdong and the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry in positions southwest of Yongdong. The 5th Cavalry Regiment took up positions east of Yongdong. At this time each Regiment, like earlier U.S. divisions deployed to Korea, consisted of only two battalions.

July 23, 1950

The first engagement of the battle for Yondong began around dawn when a North Korean mounted an attack against 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment positions northwest of Yongdong. Three T-34 tanks were destroyed. Another attack, coordinated with an attack on 2nd Battalion positions took place a couple of hours later. This was repulsed but during the day, the North Koreans attacked frontally 4 times. While these attacks tied down the two American battalions, a North Korean battalion infiltrated around 2nd Battalion positions and established a strong road block a mile an half to its rear.

2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry withdraw to new positions 5 miles north of Sangju. Meanwhile the 27th Infantry relieves ROK troops in around the Hwanggan area. Once there the 1st Battalion, 27th moved up the road toward Poun taking up positions at Sangyong-ni, a village a short distance south of Poun. Thus the U.S. 25th Infantry Division now held the sector from the Seoul-Pusan highway to Sangju. and the ROK Army troops hold the front from northeast of Sangju, to Andong, to the east coast.

Shortly after dark, the 1st Battalion, 27th sent a 30-man patrol toward Poun. Near the town the patrol saw a large column of North Korean troops approaching and set up an ambush. Once the lead unit was in the killzone, the small patrol opened up with every weapon, decimating the lead and following North Korean units. The rest of the North Korean column drew back to prepare for counterattack. While they did, the small patrol fell back to 1st Battalion lines. It lost six men missing in this action.

July 24, 1950

The enemy unit ambushed the night before attacked 1st Battalion, 27th positions at approximately 6:30 a.m. A heavy fog covered the ground. The fog allowed the North Koreans to approach very close before being discovered. The fight see-sawed back and forth over the 1st Battalion's high ground positions all day. Several times T-34s appeared, only to be knocked out by 3.5" Bazookas or airstrikes. Six tanks were destroyed and two escaped. Expecting the North Koreans to encircle the battalion, when dark fell, the 1st Battalion quietly withdrew from its positions through 2nd Battalion positions immediately behind it.

At Yongdong a series of attacks by U.S. tanks starting around dawn against the enemy roadblock behind the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry failed to dislodge the North Koreans. The 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment and the 16th Reconnaissance Company is sent to try and break the roadblock. Meanwhile, North Korean forces kept up frontal attacks on the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. These were beaten back with the help of 105mm, quad-fifty and 37mm Antiaircraft afire from supporting artillery units. As the day before, the North Korean frontal attacks were diversions to allow several platoon-sized units infiltrate around 1st Battalion positions. Some infiltrators came down the main road, dressed as civilian refugees.

24th Infantry Regiment relieves the 1st ROK Division in the Sangju area.

The 29th Infantry Regiment arrives at Pusan from Okinawa. It consists of two battalions but these units are made up mostly of newly arrived recruits while most of the NCO's and officers are also new to the unit. They have never trained together, nor have most fired and zeroed their weapons. Their new .50 caliber machine-guns are still in cosmoline and their mortars have never been test fired. Despite being promised time to draw equipment and to fire and zero weapons, the 29th is ordered to proceed immediately to Chinju where it will be attached to the 19th Infantry, 24th Division.

July 25, 1950

The 24th Infantry Division receives orders to defend Chinju in far south-central South Korea to block a North Korean flanking movement. That night the 29th Infantry, now in Chinju, receives orders to seize Hadong, a town road junction 35 miles southwest of Chinju. At dusk the 3rd Battalion, 29th begins a road march toward Hadong.

At Sangyong-ni the North Koreans evidently did not realize the 1st Battalion, 27th had pulled back during the night because as dawn broke, it revealed a large enemy force in the open behind the 1st Battalion's former position and directly under the guns of the 2nd Battalion and supporting artillery and quad-fifties. A turkey-shoot took place as Americans on the high ground pounded the North Koreans below with rifle, automatic weapons, mortar and artillery fire. Only a few survivors of two North Korean battalions escaped. Despite this setback, the North Korean division began attacking the 2nd Battalion at about 10 a.m. By mid-afternoon small North Korean units could be seen making their way around the battalion's and regiment's flanks so a withdrawal to new position on high ground near Hwanggan was ordered. This began after dark and the 27th disengaged successfully.

By morning all positions of 1st Cavalry Division units in the Yongdong area were under fire from North Korean troops who had infiltrated around through the positions so Gen. Gay ordered Yongdong abandoned. The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry made successful withdrawal from its positions northwest of the town but lost their heavy mortars during the withdrawal.

To the southwest the 2nd battalion and supporting units were not so lucky. A concentrated artillery/mortar barrage briefly opened the roadblock south of the 2nd Battalion. Most of the battalion escaped before the North Korean slammed the door shut again, trapping "F" Company, the 16th Reconnaissance Company and the 1st platoon, "A" Company, 71st Tank Battalion who were fighting rearguard. Only 4 of the 11 tanks broke through North Korean positions. The other seven tanks were abandoned and the entire group took to the mountains, reaching safety two days later.

On the other side of the enemy roadblock, the 5th Cavalry Regiment attempted to keep the road block open but failed. During this fight, "F" Company tried to envelope the roadblock but ran into an ambush instead and was badly mauled. Only 26 men from the company returned.

Meanwhile, Regimental Headquarters, 7th Cavalry Regiment and the 2nd Battalion arrived and took up a position west of Kumch'on astride the Taejon-Taegu road and railroad near a small village named No Gun Ri (Nog'un-ri.) Throughout the evening occasional rifle shots and short bursts of machine-gun fire could be heard as nervous, green troops fired at sounds or perceived enemy targets although the nearest North Korean troops were miles away. The uneasiness increased as exaggerated rumors of enemy gains in the 27th Regiment's sector spread through the newly arrived unit.

July 26, 1950

Around 12:15 a.m. the 7th Cavalry received an erroneous report of a North Korean breakthrough in the 27th 's sector and 7th Cavalry Headquarters ordered an immediate withdrawal. At this point the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, scattered in panic, leaving behind the battalion switchboard, 14 machine-guns, 9 radios, 120 M1 rifles, 26 carbines, 7 BAR's, and 6 60mm mortars, all recovered after daylight when a few NCO's and truck divers returned to pick up the abandoned equipment. The 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry DID NOT return to its former positions. By evening, 119 men from the 2nd Battalion were still missing.

While the 7th Cavalry was trying to reassemble other elements of the 1st Cavalry Division held their positions at Yongdong. The North Koreans mounted small probing attacks to tied these elements down while sending a regiment in a sweeping flanking movement through Chirye and thence toward Kumch'on. That night North Koreans mounted a major attack against 1st Cavalry elements at Yongdong by DRIVING SEVERAL HUNDRED REFUGEES AHEAD OF THEM THROUGH AMERICAN MINES FIELDS. This attack was repulsed.

By dawn the 27th Regiment, 25th Div, had successfully withdrawn to its new positions near Hwanggan. About midmorning the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry Regiment, took up a position on the 27th 's right flank but a large gap existed between the 27th and the 7th Cavalry Regiment on the 27th 's left flank.

34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Division, is ordered from its positions in the Kunwi-Uisong area north of Taegu to Koch'ang in far south-central Korea. At the same time, division headquarters moves to Hyopch'on, a town 12 air miles west of the Naktong River, 25 miles north of Chinju.

Much farther to the south, around daybreak a truckload of wounded ROK soldiers met the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry, now attached to the 24th Division's 19th Infantry, and informed them the North Koreans now held Hadong. Because of no radio communication with 19th Infantry Headquarters, the battalion XO, 3rd Battalion, 29th, returned to Chinju to pass this information to regiment and receive orders. He was told the 3rd Battalion was to continue its mission. The XO returned to the battalion, now stopped at Wonjon, and the battalion continued its advance toward Hadong, stopping at dusk at the village of Hoengch'on-ni, about 3 miles from Hadong.

July 27, 1950

About daybreak, 1st Battalion, 27th , 25th Division, came under attack from the gap on its left flank. It lost and regained its positions several times during the day but managed to hold on.

At Hoengch'on-ni, the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry began moving up toward the pass between there and Hadong at approximately 8:45 a.m. "L" Company arrived at pass at approximately 9: 45 a.m and began digging in. The battalion command group and group of ROKA officers, including General Chae Byong Duk (former Chief of Staff, ROKA) gathered at the pass so they could watch an airstrike that had been called in on Hadong. As the watched, a company of North Korean infantry was seen coming up the road from the Hadong side. At about 100 yards away, "L" company opened fire. Simultaneously, mortar and machine-gun fire from unsuspected North Korean positions on high ground about 200 yards to the north of the pass began impacting where the command group was. General Chae was killed instantly while the 3rd Battalion Commander, XO, S-2 and assisted S-2 were wounded. The fight lasted until about noon when the battalion was ordered to withdraw but found the way cut off by North Koreans who were dug in to the rear. Very few made it to safety and the 3rd Battalion, 29th ceased to exist as a fighting unit.

Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 29th Infantry was sent north from Chinju to the Anui area to relieve the 1st Battalion, 19th Infantry which returned to Chinju. Farther to the north, the 34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Division was in dug in at Koch'ang, a town about half way between Chinju and Kumch'on.

July 28, 1950

By early morning the North Koreans had penetrated 1st Battalion, 27th positions at Hwanggan and the 27th was ordered to withdraw through 1st Cavalry Division positions are return to 25th Division control.

Meanwhile, "B" and "D" Companies, 29th Infantry were under attack by superior enemy forces at Anui. They tried to withdraw to high ground across the Nam River but only 2 officers and 16 men made it before North Korean troops slammed the exit door. The remainder of the two units engaged in street fighting until around midnight and then, those who could, slipped into the hills and tried to walk to safety. Approximately half of the two companies were either killed or missing in this battle.

At Chinju the surviving 354 officers and men, including walking wounded, of the 3rd Battalion, 29th were reorganized into "K" & "L" Companies. "K" Company was attached to the 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry, and "L" Company to the 1st Battalion, 19th Infantry. The 1st Battalion, 19th relocated to Kuho-ri about 10 miles south of Chinju to block a secondary road from Hadong.

Considering the fight at Anui to be a "small battle," main North Korean forces turned north toward 34th Regiment positions at Koch'ang.

July 29, 1950

The attack on the 34th Infantry Regiment at Koch'ang began around 4 a.m. One North Korean force struck from the north and cut of "I" Company while a second North Korean force circled north of the town, then southward and cut the road east of Koch'ang. The 1st Battalion repulsed this attack, then withdrew without orders to secondary positions three miles east of Koch'ang. A short time later the 3rd Battalion also withdrew from Koch'ang, leaving "I" Company. After daylight the 1st Battalion returned and rescued most of "I" Company except for one platoon which was either killed or captured. The regiment then withdrew to new positions 15 miles to the east near the town of Sanje on the Hyopch'on road. As they withdrew, engineers destroyed all bridges and blew cliffs to block the road. Alarmed by the loss of Koch'ang, 8th Army ordered the 17th ROK Regiment to Sanje and the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry from the Yongdok-P'ohang-dong area on the east coast to Hyopch'ong where it took up positions back of the 34th .

At Umyong-ni, the 1st Battalion, 29th Infantry, commander did not learn of the disaster at Anui until early morning. By this time what was left of the 1st Battalion and mixed force of ROKA/ROKMC units was under attack. These forces withdrew towards Sanch'ong, a town about 20 miles north of Chinju, after dark.

2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry withdraws to new positions 2 miles north of Sanju while the 27th Infantry is ordered into Army reserve at Waegwan on the Naktong River. After the 27th had withdrawn through 1st Cavalry positions, the 1st Cavalry began withdrawing to new positions near Kumch'on, an important road junction 30 air miles northeast of Taegu. The 8th Cavalry took up a position astride the Sangju road, the 5th Cavalry astride the Chirye road and the 7th Cavalry astride the Yongdong road six miles northwest of Kumch'on.

July 30, 1950

Sometime during the night an enemy unit moved around the right flank of the 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry, which was holding a position on high ground astride the Chinju-Hadong road, and cut the road. Meanwhile the North Koreans mounted frontal attacks against the battalion, slowly forcing it to withdraw so by afternoon, the 2nd Battalion, and the attached remnants of the 3rd Battalion, 29th, were on the east bank of the Nam River about 2 miles west of Chinju. A lull developed as both sides prepared for the next battle. After dark, the North Koreans mounted a series of small probing attacks on the 2nd Battalion.

2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry withdraws to new positions south of Sangju while the 24th Infantry Regiment withdraws to last defendable high ground 3 miles west of Sangju.

July 31, 1950

The battle for Chinju began in earnest about 2:15 a.m. with a North Korean artillery barrage on "E" & "F" Company, 19th Infantry positions. After about 45 minutes whistles blew and North Korean infantry attacked in force with the main effort directed at "F" Company positions. By 5 a.m. "F" Company broke with its men running for "E" Company positions. Organized elements of these two companies fell back to Chinju about daylight. Meanwhile "G" Company was ordered to fall back to Chinju. It went north over the high ground and circled eastward, picking up stragglers and wounded men from "E," "F" and "H" Companies, 19th, and "K" Company, 29th Infantry. It was clear the town couldn't be held so a withdrawal was ordered. This was fairly orderly. Since the main highway bridge was under fire the 2nd Battalion went north to Uiryong. The regimental command post moved eastward out of Chinju, crossed the Nam River then east to Chiryong-ni, a small village 12 air miles east of Chinju.

On that morning, the 1st Battalion, 29th Infantry was at Sanch'ong and was unaware Chinju, 20 air miles to the southeast, had fallen but found out when refugees began appearing from the direction of Chinju so about 5 p.m. so began withdrawing southward, first to Tansong and then eastward to Haman.

Meanwhile, 1st Battalion, 19th moved 10 miles eastward toward Masan to set up positions at Chinju Pass.

35th Infantry withdraws to positions 8 miles south of Sanju

The 27th Infantry Regiment is taken out of 8th Army reserve and ordered to Masan. It departs about noon.

Aug 1, 1950

27th Infantry arrives and is directed to high ground at Chungam-ni, 15 miles to the west of Munch'on-ni. Following a conversation with the S-2 for the 1st Battalion, 19th, LTC Michaelis became convinced the 19th couldn't hold their positions and that someone needed to block the south road into Masan so he unilaterally turned his regiment around and sent it to blocking positions on this road in the Chindong-ni vicinity. Michaelis went to the newly relocated 25th Division Headquarters in Masan and told them what he had done. Presented with a fait accompli they approved.

Meanwhile, as Michaelis had suspected, the 1st Battalion, 19th had abandoned its Chinju Pass positions and relocated to "The Notch," a few miles to the east and in the Chungam-ni vicinity. While it dug in, the 2nd Battalion 19th moved into regimental reserve at the bottom of the pass.

As these moves took place, "A" Company, 8072nd Medium Tank Battalion, arrived at Masan. It was equipped with rebuilt WWII M4E8 tanks. These were the first medium tanks to reach Korea. That evening the 1st Battalion, 29th Infantry was ordered to form a tank/infantry task force and make a reconnaissance westward of "The Notch."

Aug 2, 1950

At 5:30 a.m. the tank/infantry task force assembled at Chungam-ni (19th Regimental Headquarters) and started for the Notch at 6:15. This was led by a platoon of M4 tanks. Arriving at the Notch at approximately 6:45 a.m. the task force topped the crest and started down the west side, finding North Korean infantry crawling up the ditches about a 100 yards. The tanks opened fire with their machine-guns while moving slowly ahead. A mortar round knocked out the lead tank, killing the crew. A few minutes later another tank farther up the Notch and near the end of the column was hit by anti-tank fire and set to burning. This effectively locked the remaining tanks and armored cars where they were and the fight deteriorated into a melee between infantry. During this the 1st Battalion, 29th and 1st Battalion, 19th became intermingled. Despite this, and heavy casualties, they held their positions and by mid-afternoon the North Koreans withdrew allowing the recovery of most trapped tanks and evacuation of the wounded.

Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry also mounted a tank/infantry reconnaissance task force, send this down the Chinju road from Chindong-ni. Leaving at 4 a.m. and unopposed at first, the column went several miles before surprising an enemy platoon still in their blankets along the road. Tank machine-guns and infantry rifle fire killed all but two. Some light opposition developed at the column moved toward the Much'on-ni road fork, arriving about mid-afternoon, the task force surprised a number of North Korean soldiers including a column of supply trucks which had just descended from the Chinju Pass. A few truck were able to turn around and escape back over the pass, and in doing so, alerted other vehicles heading for Much'on. Most turned around and headed back to Chinju where they became targets for F-51 aircraft which were supporting the tank/infantry column. Approximately 5 p.m., and following a series of engagements which saw two tanks damaged by anti-tank fire, a liaison aircraft flew over and dropped a message ordering the task force to return and informing them the North Korean had blocked the road back. The task force mounted all the infantrymen on tanks and vehicles with tanks in the lead, then made a dash for friendly lines. It had to stop several times and knock out enemy roadblocks but made it safely back to 27th lines about midnight.

Aug 3, 1950

The following morning Headquarters, 27th at Chindong-ni, came under heavy fire from a bluff above the town. A North Korean battalion had infiltrated during the night. Following a period of confusion, and thanks to 1st Battalion arrival late the night before, the enemy was routed. An hour or so later second North Korean battalion joined the first but all enemy troops were driven off with heavy loses.

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KOREAN WAR 2008.08.23 10:33 Posted by 대풍

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2008년 6월 21일

참전
유공자 모임을 위한 6.25 한국 전쟁 회고

                                                     -김웅수장군


이곳에
모이신 전우들은 모두가 6.25 한국 전쟁에 참가하신 분들이기에 한국 전쟁에 대해서 틀별한 말씀을 드릴 필요가 없을 압니다. 회장님이 저에게 한국전쟁에 대한 말씀을 부탁하셨기에 생각을 보았습니다. 나는 전쟁 기간 교육 기관이나 사령부 근무가 태반이라 이렇다할 자랑해 볼만한 용맹 거리도 갔고 있지 않습니다. 여러분 보다 연령이 많다보니 한국 군의 창군 과정을 많이 경험한 인연으로 그런 면에서 이야기를 볼려합니다.

 

나는 군사 영어학교가 문을 닫고 한국군의 1 사관학교가 시작하는 무렵 1946 51일부로 당시의 국방 경비대 육군 참위(현재 육군 소위) 임관 하였습니다. 한국 군을 대한민국이 출발하는 1948 8 15일부로 시작하면 나의 국군으로의 임관은 없던 것이 되며 경비대 기간 임관된 분이 1기에서 7기까지라 하니 기간에 임관된 분들은 전부가 국군으로 임관되지 못한 분이 되는 격이 됩니다. 5.16군사 혁명 제정된 우리의 군인 연금법이 돈을 절약할 목적이었던지 불연이면 거치장 스러웠던 선배들의 예우를 끄린 결과가 같이 되었습니다. 그러나 군정은 대한민국을 수립할 경비대를 국군의 기초가 되게 해달라는 각서를 수교한 것으로 알고 있습니다. 현재 군의 모든 기초가 경비대로 풀이 되고는 있으나 일각에서는 광복군이 한국군의 기초라는 주장이 제기 되기 시작했습니다.

 

나는 한국전쟁  한국군이 기습을 당했을 까 하고 의아해 보았습니다. 여러분 중에도 그런 질문을 던지는 분들이 있을 믿습니다. 그분들을 위해 최근 미주한국에 연재된 나의 한국전 회고록의 일부 워데마이야 장군 대해 소개해 봅니다.

 

남한군을 실망시킨 육군 작전국장 웨데마이아 장군

 

한국전쟁이 발발하기 전에도 옹진 반도나 개성 송악산을 중심으로 남북 간의 작은 충돌 사건은 왕왕 있어 왔다. 북한 정권은 정권 수립 직후부터  의도적으로 전쟁준비를 하고 있었던 같다. 나는 1949년초 초대 국방 장관의 부관으로 중국을 방문한 육군성 작전 국장이었던 웨데마이야 장군을 환영하며 그에게 북한군의 무장과 훈련에 대비한 남한 군의 요청을 위한 회의에 참석한 일이 있었다. 당시 이범석 초대 국방 장관은 2 세계대전 중국 운남성에서의 미중 합동작전을 통한 그와의 교류를 믿고 그에게 일본군이 남겨놓은 무기로 무장한 남한 군을 북한 군의 포화와 전차 전투기에 대항할 있도록 무장되어야 함을 강조하며 도와줄 것을 요청하였었다.

 

웨데마이야 장군은 놀랍게도 국군의 무장은 북의 도발을 유도한다며  한국은 후일 혹시나 여객기가 필요할 때가 올런지도 모른다는 반응으로 우리를 실망 시켰다. 그리고 6.25 국무장관이 한국군 7 사단 정면 시찰한 기회를 지적, 일본의 좌경 학자 간에는 한국전쟁은 북침 혹은 미국이 유도한 전쟁이었다는 설을 한동안 주장한 있었다.”    

 

대한민국 국군은 인민군의 무장과 부대 훈련을 알고 있었던 것은 없었으나 미국을 전적으로 의뢰하고 있었던 같습니다. 현재 북은 우리끼리라는 이야기를 하는데 공산권의 거짓은 몸에 밖혀있는 합니다. 나의 회고록에서 북의 위장전술을 다시 소개해 봅니다.

 

북의 6.25 남침 위장 전술

 

전쟁 발발 일주일 전으로 기억한다. 북한으로부터 북에 감금되어 있던 조만식 선생과 남에 구속되어 있던 남로당 간부 이주하와 김삼룡을 1950 62438 상에서 교환하자는 제의가 있었으며 남한 정부의 호응을 받았던 것으로 기억한다. 북한은 약속을 1950 6 25 미명에 걸친 남한 기습 공격으로 대신하였다. 북한은 교환을 남침 위장용으로 사용 하였던 것이다. 나는 1992 6월경 당시 쏘련에 망명 중이던 한국 휴전 회담의 북측 부대표 전상진 중장(당시 인민군 육군 참모부장) 개전 당시 북한 육군 작전국장이었던 성철 소장과 같이 버지니아 주에 위치 했던 Annandale 한국 감리교회 김영훈 목사의 초대를 받아 한국전쟁에 증언을 하였으며 그들과 같이 워싱턴 DC 있는 Heritage Foundation 방문에 동행한 일이 있었다. 유소장은 개전 일주일 모스크바에서 쏘련 장교가 남침 공격 명령서를 갖이고 방문해 그를 우리 말로 번역하는데 무척 고생했다고 설명하는 것을 들은바 있었다. 나는 당시 6.25 남침 공격 명령도 쏘련제였구나 생각한 있었다.”

 

나는 한국정부와 미국 정부 간의 한국 전쟁 휴전에 따른 의견차로 고민을 하게 되었으며 다시 나의 회고록을 이용해 봅니다.

 

아이젠하우워 대통령 당선자와 이승만 한국 대통령

 

내가 아이젠하우워 대통령 당선자를 만나게 것은 1952 12 이며 장소는 서부 전선의 미군 부대 사령부에서로 기억한다. 대통 당선자로서 한국 휴전을 위한 공약 실천을 판단키 위한 방문이었다.  승만 한국 대통령은 한국의 통일 가능성을 보장 받지 하거나 북의 재침 방지의 보장 없는 휴전에는 반대한 것으로 안다. 그는 1953 58 U N 휴전 조건에 반대 의사를 표명하였고 6 3 한국정부의 4 휴전 조건 제시했으나 이승만 대통령을 납득 시키지  못한 미국은 대통령 6 18 거제도에서 반공포료 27,000명을 미국과 상의 없이 석방 조치함으로  한미간의 긴장이 있었다. 급기야 Robertson 국무 차관보와 육군 참모 총장인 Collins 대장이 한국에 급파되었다. 나는 휘전 직전 대통령의 특사인 신태영 원용덕 장군의 사단 방문을 받고 한미간 휴전 문제의 대립으로 고문단의 경계를 의식했던 기억이 난다. 불행 다행 으로 1953 7 15 한미간의 타협이 이루어저 한국군의 근대화와 경제 원조 후일 한미동맹의 체결 약속으로 휴전이 성립되게 되었다. 

 

통한의 휴전

 

드디어 1953 727 휴전이 성립되었다. 내가 군단장으로부터    휴전 지시 7 27 정오 12시를 기해 사격을 포함한 일체의 적대 행위를 중지하라는 명령이었다. 한국정부의 일시적인 휴전 반대 정책은 군단에 소속된 한국 사단장의 입장을 난처하게 만들었다. 통일 되지 하며 남침과 막대한 군과 민의 인명과 재산 피해를 초래케 북의 남침을  응징 못하였으나 부하들의 희생을 막을 있는 기회이기도해 착잡한 경을 표현키 어려웠다. 나는 군단 명령 사격중지 명령을 오전 11시로  앞단겨 수정해 내렸다. 이제는 유사시를 위해 비축할 필요가 없는 탄약이 전부 사용해 적을 응징하는 포격을 가하도록 하였다 . 적으로부터의   응은 별로 없었던 것으로 기억한다. 그렇게 해서 휴전날은 지나 갔으며  수일 방탕 죳기를 입고 맥마산 산정에 올라가 보았다. 아군 진지 방에서 나려다 보이는 골짜기에는 아무 것도 보이지 아니하였다.”

 

6.25 한국 전쟁에 관한 국내외적 뜻은 이미 알려저 있으니 언급을 피하며 나의 한국전쟁에 관한 개인 견해 몃가지만 피력해 보겠습니다.

 

1) 나는 한국 전쟁을 신생 민주 국가에 대한 공산 침략으로부터 구출하 려한 세계 정의로 파악하였습니다. 변을 당한 남한 입장으로 보면 만족 한 휴전 결과는 못 되었지만 세계 2차대전 중의 피해의식을 참작한다면 41 UN 국가가 동원된 세계 정의의 표현이었다 생각하고 있습니다.

 

2) 한국 전쟁은 2차 대전후의 동서 냉전의 일환으로 발생했으며 북한이    남침에 대한 직접적 책임은 있겠으나 동서 냉전 기간 중 북과 쏘련및 중공의 의도에 대처 못한 미국도 책임을 면하기 어렵다고 생각케 됬었 습니다. 특히 1950 1 12일 발표된 아치슨 line은 쏘련과 북에게 남침을 고무했다 생각됩니다. 미국은 최소한 남한 군이라도 무장 시켰어 야 했으며 그런 의미에서 남한도 무방비에 대한 책임에서 벗어날 수 없 다 생각됩니다.                    

 

3) 한국 전쟁의 휴전은 세계 3차전을 우려한 UN회원 국가들과 미국의 정치 발상으로 타협됬으며 전사에서 유래없는 근 200만의 병력이 대치 하는 초 긴장 국면을 오늘까지 유지해 전선 유지경비가 전쟁 경비를 초과하는 휴전과 어려운 남북 통일 과제를 남기고 있습니다.

 

4) 남북과 중공 쏘련을 제외한 UN 41개국들이 직 간접적으로 참전하였 으며 UN군 약16(89%는 미국), 중공90만의 희생이 보고되 있습니 다. 남 북한도 500만 이상과 난민 1000만 이상의 한국 역사상 유레 없는 물적 인명 피해를 갖어왔습니다. 한국 전쟁 중의 많은 외국 국민의 희생은 통일을 위한 민족 자결의 행동을 어렵게 만들었다 생각 됩니다. 특히 장차 미국과 중공의 주장이 개입치 아니한 통일이 어려워 질 가능 성을 갖어온 것 같습니다.

5) 한국전쟁은 개방된 남한과 폐쇠된 북한을 만들었으며 개방된 남한은 세계 최빈국에서 민주주의와 시장경제를 바탕으로 세계 10대 교역 국가 가 되었고 반대로 페쇠된 북한은 인구의 10%를 아사케 하며 정치 수용 소에는 재판 없이 구속된20만 이상의 정치범과 많은 탈북민으로 국제 문제가 되고 있습니다. 북은 국민 아사의 대가로 핵 개발을 시도했다는 의혹을 받고 있으나 그로 인한 남북 문제와 국제정세는 과연 북에 보답이 될런지 아직 미지수입니다.

 

끝으로 이종수 회장님을 중심으로 참전 유공자 회의 무궁한 발전을 빕니다.


'2008 621일 한국전쟁 58주년을 기하여'             

      
        워싱턴 지역 참전 유공자회 고문
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